Microscale optical devices enabled by wireless power harvesting and telemetry facilitate manipulation and testing of localized biological environments (e.g., neural recording and stimulation, targeted delivery to cancer cells). Design of integrated microsystems utilizing optical power harvesting and telemetry will enable complex in vivo applications like actuating a single nerve, without the difficult requirement of extreme optical focusing or use of nanoparticles. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based platforms provide a very powerful architecture for such miniaturized platforms as these can be used to fabricate both optoelectronic and microelectronic devices on the same substrate. Near-infrared biomedical optics can be effectively utilized for optical power harvesting to generate optimal results compared with other methods (e.g., RF and acoustic) at submillimeter size scales intended for such designs. We present design and integration techniques of optical power harvesting structures with complementary metal oxide semiconductor platforms using SOI technologies along with monolithically integrated electronics. Such platforms can become the basis of optoelectronic biomedical systems including implants and lab-on-chip systems.