Finally, we evaluated the effects of anesthesia on and total HbI of cerebral and femoral regions in Chihuahuas (Fig. 5). Using the NIRS protocol in series, we confirmed that Toccare could detect changes in the NIRS parameters in response to sedation and anesthesia. Cerebral oxygenation levels were well maintained under sevoflurane inhalation with 100% even though the anesthetized dog exhibited a low heart rate. Although we could detect changes in the parameters of brain NIRS with 100% inhalation, the values were not statistically analyzed due to only one dog data, indicating that further investigation will be needed to identify changes in the brain NIRS values in response to inhalation and anesthesia. In human medicine, NIRS is beginning to be used to monitor cerebral oxygenation levels under general anesthesia.20 These results suggest that, in the future, NIRS may be advantageous for monitoring cerebral oxygenation in the brains of anesthetized dogs. Other than anesthesia, we anticipate Toccare can be used as an oxygenation monitoring device in a variety of situations including ischemia and reperfusion of organs, e.g., liver and kidney, during surgery. Given Toccare’s mechanical characteristics including its size and weight, use of AAA batteries, mobility, ease of operation, and data storage capabilities, NIRS will enable us to measure and monitor and total HbI in the open air during emergency and critical care. Rather than nuclear scanning for functional brain analysis, NIRS represents a clinically simple, safe, and noninvasive technique for detection of tissue and organ oxygenation levels in the microcirculation system.