A one-axis charge-coupled device camera-based goniometer setup was developed to measure the three-dimensional radiance profile (longitudinal, azimuthal, and polar) of cylindrical light diffusers in air and water. An algorithm was programmed to project the two-dimensional camera data onto the diffuser coordinates. The optical system was designed to achieve a spatial resolution on the diffuser surface in the submillimeter range. The detection threshold of the detector was well below the values of measured radiance. The radiance profiles of an exemplary cylindrical diffuser measured in air showed local deviations in radiance below 10% for wavelengths at 635 and 671 nm. At 808 nm, deviations in radiance became larger, up to 45%, most probable due to the manufacturing process of the diffuser. Radiance profiles measured in water were less Lambertian than in air due to the refractive index matching privileging the radial decoupling of photons from the optical fiber.