Special Section on Advanced Laser Technologies for Biophotonics

Characterization of carrier erythrocytes for biosensing applications

[+] Author Affiliations
Sandra C. Bustamante López

Texas A&M University, College of Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College Station, Texas, United States

Kenith E. Meissner

Texas A&M University, College of Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College Station, Texas, United States

Swansea University, Department of Physics, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom

J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 091510 (Apr 05, 2017). doi:10.1117/1.JBO.22.9.091510
History: Received December 16, 2016; Accepted March 9, 2017
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Abstract.  Erythrocyte abundance, mobility, and carrying capacity make them attractive as a platform for blood analyte sensing as well as for drug delivery. Sensor-loaded erythrocytes, dubbed erythrosensors, could be reinfused into the bloodstream, excited noninvasively through the skin, and used to provide measurement of analyte levels in the bloodstream. Several techniques to load erythrocytes, thus creating carrier erythrocytes, exist. However, their cellular characteristics remain largely unstudied. Changes in cellular characteristics lead to removal from the bloodstream. We hypothesize that erythrosensors need to maintain native erythrocytes’ (NEs) characteristics to serve as a long-term sensing platform. Here, we investigate two loading techniques and the properties of the resulting erythrosensors. For loading, hypotonic dilution requires a hypotonic solution while electroporation relies on electrical pulses to perforate the erythrocyte membrane. We analyze the resulting erythrosensor signal, size, morphology, and hemoglobin content. Although the resulting erythrosensors exhibit morphological changes, their size was comparable with NEs. The hypotonic dilution technique was found to load erythrosensors much more efficiently than electroporation, and the sensors were loaded throughout the volume of the erythrosensors. Finally, both techniques resulted in significant loss of hemoglobin. This study points to the need for continued development of loading techniques that better preserve NE characteristics.

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© 2017 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Sandra C. Bustamante López and Kenith E. Meissner
"Characterization of carrier erythrocytes for biosensing applications", J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 091510 (Apr 05, 2017). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.22.9.091510


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