Research Papers: Therapeutic

Rapid sealing of porcine renal blood vessels, ex vivo, using a high power, 1470-nm laser, and laparoscopic prototype

[+] Author Affiliations
Luke A. Hardy, Thomas C. Hutchens, David A. Gonzalez, Chun-Hung Chang, Nathaniel M. Fried

University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Department of Physics and Optical Science, Charlotte, North Carolina, United States

Eric R. Larson, William H. Nau

Medtronic, Boulder, Colorado, United States

J. Biomed. Opt. 22(5), 058002 (May 27, 2017). doi:10.1117/1.JBO.22.5.058002
History: Received February 10, 2017; Accepted April 28, 2017
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Abstract.  Energy-based, radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasonic (US) devices currently provide rapid sealing of blood vessels during laparoscopic procedures. We are exploring infrared lasers as an alternate energy modality for vessel sealing, capable of generating less collateral thermal damage. Previous studies demonstrated feasibility of sealing vessels in an in vivo porcine model using a 1470-nm laser. However, the initial prototype was designed for testing in open surgery and featured tissue clasping and light delivery mechanisms incompatible with laparoscopic surgery. In this study, a laparoscopic prototype similar to devices currently in surgical use was developed, and performance tests were conducted on porcine renal blood vessels, ex vivo. The 5-mm outer-diameter laparoscopic prototype featured a traditional Maryland jaw configuration that enables tissue manipulation and blunt dissection. Laser energy was delivered through a 550-μm-core-diameter optical fiber with side-delivery from the lower jaw and beam dimensions of 18-mmlength×1.2-mmwidth. The 1470-nm diode laser delivered 68 W with 3-s activation time, consistent with vessel seal times associated with RF and US-based devices. A total of 69 fresh porcine renal vessels with mean diameter of 3.3±1.7  mm were tested, ex vivo. Vessels smaller than 5-mm diameter were consistently sealed (48/51) with burst pressures greater than malignant hypertension blood pressure (180 mmHg), averaging 1038±474  mmHg. Vessels larger than 5 mm were not consistently sealed (6/18), yielding burst pressures of only 174±221  mmHg. Seal width, thermal damage zone, and thermal spread averaged 1.7±0.8, 3.4±0.7, and 1.0±0.4  mm, respectively. Results demonstrated that the 5-mm optical laparoscopic prototype consistently sealed vessels less than 5-mm diameter with low thermal spread. Further in vivo studies are planned to test the performance across a variety of vessels and tissues.

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© 2017 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Luke A. Hardy ; Thomas C. Hutchens ; Eric R. Larson ; David A. Gonzalez ; Chun-Hung Chang, et al.
"Rapid sealing of porcine renal blood vessels, ex vivo, using a high power, 1470-nm laser, and laparoscopic prototype", J. Biomed. Opt. 22(5), 058002 (May 27, 2017). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.22.5.058002


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