A methodology that employs confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) on ex vivo skin samples is proposed for the investigation of drug content and distribution in the skin. To this end, the influence of the penetration enhancers propylene glycol and polyoxyethylene-23-lauryl ether on the penetration and permeation of procaine as a model substance was investigated. The drug content of skin samples that had been incubated with semisolid formulations containing one of these enhancers was examined after skin segmentation. The experiments showed that propylene glycol did not affect the procaine content that was delivered to the skin, whereas polyoxyethylene-23-lauryl ether led to higher procaine contents and deeper penetration. Neither substance was found to influence the permeation rate of procaine. It is thereby shown that CRM can provide additional information on drug penetration and permeation. Furthermore, the method was found to enhance the depth from which Raman spectra can be collected and to improve the depth resolution compared to previously proposed methods.